Tuesday, April 19, 2011

Japan, Radiation & Destiny 2

A continuation of how radiation affects biological and ecological systems.

"...they're making it up as they go along, and we are the guinea pigs for this science experiment that is taking place..."
Michio Kaku on Fukushima Disaster
Chernobyl, Ukraine and Fukushima, Japan are now sister cities in horror.  They have both become in the first case, Europe's first nuclear refugees, and in the latter case, Japan's first peacetime nuclear refugees.  We show you a documentary about the events in Chernobyl done in 2006, entitled, The Battle Of Chernobyl.  This film tells the TRUTH about how many people really died during the Chernobyl disaster.  At least 600 helicopter pilots died from radiation sickness.  Since then, the name for the symptoms experienced by at least 250,000 of the "bio-robots" used in Chernobyl have been labelled the Chernobyl Syndrome.  According to a Russian investigative reporter, Alla Yaroshinskaya, many of the actual death effects of people exposed to radiation have been covered up.  In some cases, they are unknown since the standards used for measuring the radiation doses have been shown to be unreliable.  Yaroshinskaya states, 
Official Ukrainian figures state that 148 000 people died as a result of Chernobyl during the ten years following the catastrophe. The Russian Committee of Liquidators stated that 100 000 liquidators have died over the past two decades as a result of their work at and around Chernobyl. According to the data of The Chernobyl Union of Ukraine, 622 250 people have died during the same 20 years. The organization has a special calculator on its website, updated daily.
As if to underscore the coverup of this entire affair, the man charged to formulate the Soviet report on the Chernobyl disaster, Valery Legasov, committed suicide on the anniversary of the Chernobyl disaster.  Wikipedia states this,
On the second anniversary of the disaster, Legasov committed suicide by hanging himself from the stairwell of his apartment. Reportedly, before his suicide, he recorded himself on audiotape revealing previously undisclosed facts about the catastrophe. According to an analysis of the recording by BBC TV series Surviving Disaster: Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster, Legasov claims political pressure censored mention of Soviet nuclear secrecy, which forbade even plant operators knowledge of previous accidents and known problems with the design of the reactor, in his report to the IAEA. It was implied that his suicide was at least partly due to his distress at not having spoken out about these factors at Vienna, the suppression of his subsequent attempts to do so, and the damage to his career that these attempts caused. The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists also stated that Legasov had become bitterly disillusioned with the failure of the authorities to confront the design flaws.
 If you cannot see this embedded video, here is the link:  http://youtu.be/yiCXb1Nhd1o.


As was said in the previous article, all things decay.  This decay is known as entropy.  There are a host of scientists who worked on our present understanding of the Second Law of Thermodynamics.  The most famous of them was Rudolph Clausius (1822-88), a German physicist and mathematician, who published a paper in 1850 entitled, On the Mechanical Theory Of Heat.
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Carbon-14 Cycle




Carbon Dating
For instance the Carbon-14, which is used extensively in dating natural materials has a half-life of 5736 years, which coincides with the human civilization. Each nuclear decay of this element ticks back 5736 years and configuring that loss, dates the material under study. That is how geologists are able to date various artifacts of history and the geological layers of rock formations, the Burgess Shale (the word's most famous fossil fields),
Burgess Shale
the age of King Tutankhamen, other mummies and even Lucy (Australopithicus afarensis circa 2.7-4 million years).
Lucy

History is replete with serendipitous expressions of discovery. Radioactivity falls in that category. In 1896 a Frenchman named Henri Becquerel discovered the radioactive emissions from Uranium while looking for phosphorescence in various elements.

Ernst Rutherford discovered the alpha and beta emissions from Uranium. In 1898 Nobel Laureates Marie Curie her husband Pierre and Henri Becquerel realized the complex nature of radioactive decay.


How does Carbon-14 do that? The sun is the source of radiation energy. As the cosmic rays collide with the Nitrogen-14 they liberate a proton and a Neutron. The Carbon captures the released Neutron to become Carbon-14. This is embedded in plant and animal life and gets buried in the soil ultimately decaying back to its Nitrogen form as its half-life clock ticks down the years. This instability expressed in the form of radioactive decay is related to the configuration of the Neutrons and Protons in the nucleus of the atom. It is balance that the atom tries to achieve between Neutrons (N) and the Protons (Z) by causing the radioactive decay and emission of particles.  Thus release or capture of Neutrons is an attempt to achieve a nuclear balance. We, humans, exploit that imbalance to read time.


Radioactive Decay
Here is a brief explanation of the discovery of radioactivity.  If you cannot see the embedded video here is the link: http://youtu.be/LDaZZnQCJw4.  This may remind you of your high school or college physics class, but nevertheless seems necessary to us to introduce.  If you give it an honest attempt to view it you will recollect or review things you already knew.


Uranium in Pitchblende
Interestingly a naturally found element in the soil is none other than uranium. In 1789 Martin Heinrich Klaproth discovered the silvery element after dissolving pitchblende in nitric acid and named it after the planet Uranus. The most common isotope of Uranium found in the earth is U-238. Although U-238 is fissile (breaks into smaller components) with high-energy neutrons, it however does not lend itself to a “chain-reaction.” U-238 can also capture its own Neutron and after two beta-decays convert into Plutonium-239. Pu-239 is highly fissile and used militarily and in commercial use for energy production in Nuclear Reactors. The military grade Uranium has to have between 3-5% of U-235 which has a lower half-life and is inherently more unstable and therefore given easily to fission. A “Depleted uranium is one that has less than 0.3% U-235 and therefore considered less fissile and is extremely dense. The DU is used in weaponry. The half-life of U-238 is an impressive 4.468 billion years.
Uranium


Atom and its components
All radioactive elements are inherently unstable. The stability of the Element comes from when Neutrons (N) and the Protons (Z) are balanced. For example if the element has 6 Neutrons and 6 Protons, its nucleus is inherently stable. However any discrepancy between the protons and neutrons leads to radioactivity through decay by virtue of expulsion of the excess Proton/Neutron/Electron to achieve parity.   We have included this video for those of you who are more visually oriented which gives the basic explanation of isotopes.  If you cannot see the embedded video, here is the link: http://youtu.be/zEX2aGpIDBY.


The emissions are in the form of “Alpha decay”. “Beta decay” or “Gamma decay.” Alpha decay occurs in heavy elements with 52 or greater Protons. The emitted particles are therefore heavy (Helium nucleus) and have limited penetrance beyond a thin layer of material. 

The only way they can cause harm to humans and animals is if these are ingested and their radioactive decay occurs within embedded tissue causing genetic effects on the nearby cells. Beta decay occurs with smaller particles that can penetrate deeper.  Here is a series of detailed videos explaining radioactivity and its effect on the human body in particular.  IF you cannot see the embedded videos, here is the link: http://bit.ly/ibMRbG.

So external exposure to alpha waves by humans can lead to damage to the subsurface of the skin (subcutaneous layers). The penetration stops there due to material density. This occurs with all unstable elements.  We have located a Radiation Dosage Chart compliments of informstionisbeautiful.
click to enlarge


In our next installment in this series we will continue to cover radiation and its effect on biological and ecological systems.

Co-Written by PlusUltraTech and Parvez Dara, MD FACP

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